Area Development
For all the discussion of green office buildings in the past few years, very few existing multitenant buildings have undergone a whole-building retrofit specifically to capture the very real benefits of lower energy costs and enhanced occupant well-being and productivity. Although owners and tenants alike can gain from a well-executed retrofit, they remain at a logistical impasse in determining how to shoulder the upfront cost and share the benefits.

Now it appears that a solution - unproven but promising - may come from the Empire State Building in New York City, where a recently announced energy retrofit program relies on an innovative tenant engagement initiative to reach its goal of reducing energy use by 38 percent.

Reduced energy usage will save the building $4.4 million annually at current energy prices, and will reduce CO2 emissions by 105,000 metric tons over the next 15 years.  The retrofit program will also enable the building to achieve an Energy Star score of 90 by 2013, making it among the top 10 percent of buildings in terms of efficiency - a tremendous feat for a building that will then be more than 80 years old.

The driving force behind the retrofit, Empire State Building owner Tony Malkin assembled a team of nonprofit and for-profit organizations to ensure that the reduction targets announced this past April could be reached. The team, consisting of Clinton Climate Initiative, Jones Lang LaSalle, Rocky Mountain Institute, and Johnson Controls, conducted cost and benefit analyses of more than 60 energy strategies to determine which actions would produce the optimal balance of cost and emission reduction. The analytical process used existing and newly created tools to produce projections that the team is highly confident of achieving. The primary variable that could cause the team to fall short of its goal is the level of tenant participation in the program.

Tenants Must Do Their Part
Under the plan, actions taken by tenants are expected to reduce the building's energy use by more than 6 percent, about one-sixth of the total reduction target of 38 percent. These numbers assume that the vast majority of new and renewing tenants will opt into a set of recommended sustainable practices. In creating these tenant engagement guidelines, the Empire State Building team has addressed one of the greatest barriers to sustainability in office buildings.

As much as owners and tenants share a motivation to pursue energy reduction, very few have figured out how to overcome the logistical obstacles to work together to maximize efficiency. Tenants may follow good practices such as turning off lights at night and buying Energy Star computers, but they are unable to measure the results of these strategies. Owners look for cost-effective ways to improve efficiency but lack the financial motivation to invest substantial time and money. Thus, strategies that require cooperation between owners and tenants tend to go unexplored.

The biggest challenge is in the lease structure, whether it is a net lease, wherein energy costs are paid by the tenant, or a gross lease, where these costs are included in the rental rate and paid by the owner. Since gross leases generally allow annual rent adjustments based on fluctuations in operating costs, tenants end up paying energy costs either way.

In most cases, each tenant's share of the total energy cost is based on square footage rather than the actual amount used by that tenant. As a result, there is no financial motivation for a tenant in a multitenant building to reduce usage.

Accurately Measuring Energy Use
Companies that intend to report the size of their carbon footprint often discover that there is no way to accurately measure their base energy use in buildings they lease, let alone the reduction that might result from proactive measures.

There is no shortage of helpful advice for how tenants can reduce energy usage. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star program for commercial buildings, for example, offers ways to "Bring Your Green to Work," such as powering down computers and office machines when not in use, keeping air vents unblocked, and using energy-saving light bulbs. But for most tenants, measuring the benefit and profiting from the reduction in usage remains an elusive goal.

Meanwhile, office-building owners are directing their property managers to make buildings as energy-efficient as possible, without spending substantial amounts. Here the calculation is not about occupancy cost but on net operating income for the overall asset and return on capital invested in the retrofit. Although studies indicate that green buildings average higher rents and occupancy than traditional buildings, leasing agents report difficulty in getting tenants to pay a large enough premium for energy efficiency to justify the major expense of a whole-building retrofit.

For an energy efficiency program to achieve optimal results in multitenant buildings, owners and tenants must both see financial benefits in proportion to their contribution to the building's reduction in usage. Sub-metering tenant spaces can help identify how much energy is used by each tenant, but electricity sub-metering is much more prevalent in multi-family residential buildings than it is in office buildings.

Whatever method for assessing utility cost is used, it must be stipulated in the lease documentation and not be subject to change during the lease term. Since leases in multitenant buildings expire at different times and new tenants move in on their own schedule, owners cannot expect to make building-wide changes all at once. In addition, leasing agents are hesitant to place unnecessary requirements on tenants during the negotiation process, for fear of losing the tenant to another building.

Motivating Strategies
The Empire State Building team addressed these issues with a set of strategies designed to motivate tenants to share the building's sustainability goals without requiring participation of any tenant. The program includes:

Pre-built spaces: The team is building out interior spaces with a range of sustainable features, including use of recycled materials, energy-efficient lighting, and maximum use of the building's unparalleled daylight and views. The spaces are designed for time-pressed tenants to occupy quickly, and for other renewing and incoming tenants to visit in order to understand the aesthetics and economics involved. The pre-built spaces will save $0.70 to $0.90 per square foot in annual operating costs for an incremental cost of $6 per square foot, resulting in a net gain to the tenant over the term of a 10-year lease.

Tenant design guidelines: A set of written recommendations based on the pre-built program help walk tenants through the process of creating sustainable space, which not only saves money but also creates a healthier and more productive work environment for employees.

Sub-metering: As leases are renewed and spaces turn over, the team will install sub-meters in all spaces, and will give tenants the option of either maintaining a per-square-foot system for calculating energy bills, or opting into a pay-for-usage system. Although the owner will still have to pro-rate energy used in lobbies and hallways, the pay-for-usage system will reward tenants that participate in energy efficient strategies with lower costs per square foot than they would otherwise be able to achieve.

Energy and carbon monitoring: Tenants engaged in sustainable initiatives will be able to measure their carbon footprint and see how changes in their space affect their usage and cost by accessing a feedback-and-reporting energy management program developed by the team during the analytical process.

The ability to relocate tenants within the building, even temporarily, as leases are renewed will also help the team complete other projects on an accelerated schedule. For example, the team will refurbish each of the building's 6,500 windows over the next few years, a process which involves removing each double-pane window, adding a third pane and glazing to enhance its energy efficiency, and replacing the window. The entire process will be done on-site to save transportation costs and associated CO2 emissions, and the re-use of the windows and frames will avoid unnecessary waste being sent to the landfill. At the same time that the window refurbishment is under way, insulation will be added between radiators and exterior walls to further improve energy performance.

The tenant engagement program and the work in tenant spaces are part of a larger initiative that will also address aspects of the building infrastructure and common areas; however, for the Empire State Building to reach its full potential as a highly energy-efficient building, tenant engagement is key.

Signs of Success
Since nearly 40 percent of the building's space is due to turn over within four years, the success level of the tenant engagement program will soon be evident. Early signs are encouraging: One new tenant is pursuing LEED CI Platinum certification on its commercial interior space, and another tenant is pursuing LEED CI Silver. The building itself is pursuing LEED EB-OM Gold certification, which would make it one of first pre-World War II office buildings in the country to receive such a designation.

Malkin's hope is that other owners will replicate the Empire State Building program to financially justify whole-building energy retrofits at their own buildings, the ultimate goal being to prompt the reduction of building-related CO2 emissions by thousands of times what one building alone can achieve. Accordingly, he has directed the retrofit team to launch and maintain a web site - - to share detailed documentation and tools with all interested parties throughout the process. Even if a complete retrofit is not a viable option, however, the tenant engagement program may provide ideas and tools that will help bring owners and tenants together in overcoming obstacles to energy efficiency in multitenant buildings.  

Dana Schneider, Northeast Regional Market Lead for Sustainability at Jones Lang LaSalle, serves as program manager of the energy retrofit at the Empire State Building. She can be reached at Dan Probst is Chairman of Energy and Sustainability Services at Jones Lang LaSalle. He can be reached at