The focus on cost savings and shorter payback periods can also be applied to location selection projects for expanding or relocating manufacturing operations. Some recent Austin Consulting projects have involved relocation of operations from high-cost operating environments (such as metropolitan areas) to lower-cost areas (such as more suburban or rural regions) in an attempt to achieve cost savings. The Austin analyses incorporate a "benchmark" for current operating costs versus "alternative" options in other regions to compare cost savings or penalties that could be expected based on operating requirements. A major focus for these projects is labor costs and the return on investment that a new location with reduced labor costs could bring.
Driven by competition to find lowest-cost wages, some industries have considered moving operations offshore, but this is not a new trend. In 1977, the municipality of Sioux City, Iowa, decided to save their taxpayers less than $300 on a nearly $79,000 purchase by selecting a Japanese-made escalator over an American-made one for their new City Hall building. The irony, however, came shortly thereafter, when the local Zenith television production plant - pressured by competition from foreign-made models - announced it would be closing and laying off 800 workers. The jobs were transferred to Mexico and Taiwan where wages were $5 less than the $6.32 per hour the company was paying to American workers. Sioux City quickly found out how decisions like theirs impacted the U.S. manufacturing sector and American jobs, but - at the same time - city officials, like other businesses and consumers, had their own budgets to be concerned about.
During the 1970s and even prior, companies began to move operations to low-cost regions in the southern United States as well as abroad, largely driven by competition to find the lowest-wage locations. This was especially the case for low-cost, low-margin products that required low-skilled manufacturing. The trend for moving operations to foreign countries continued to grow for more industries in the mid-1980s and leading up to a major shift in the mid-1990s following passage of NAFTA legislation. Industries such as computers and other electronics, clothing and textiles, and toys and other consumer products have been largely impacted by this shift.
Labor in the New Economy
Although the exodus of manufacturing from the United States to offshore locations that became more pronounced during the past 20 years was devastating to many communities, it can be argued that the loss of these lower-skilled production operations made room for the next generation of manufacturing and production that is still occurring today. New industries such as biotechnology and advanced manufacturing require higher-skilled workers and flexible labor forces that many less-developed nations do not offer.
It is also more cost-effective to produce regionally and locally consumed products, such as food and beverages, in the United States rather than abroad, and shelf life and food safety considerations are also critical to these products. Some types of packaging and building materials are also produced locally to serve local markets. Although the manufacturing of these types of products is destined to remain in the United States, consumers are still demanding lower-priced products, and companies are constantly striving to offer competitive prices by lowering costs, especially labor costs.
In today's economic recession, the United States is facing a national unemployment rate of 10 percent with some states showing much higher rates, such as Michigan (14.7 percent) and California (12.3 percent). In addition, the level of underemployment, i.e., people employed in jobs that they may be overqualified for, is also at an historic high. This means the availability of workers - including some who may possess high skill levels that are required for "new" manufacturing - is at an all-time high in most areas. The surplus of available of workers has benefited companies, however, by allowing wages to remain relatively stable over the past several years, while still allowing businesses to attract quality workers. Based on the forecast for the coming years, a slow economic turnaround means that this trend should continue to benefit companies.
Other Labor-Related Cost Factors
Today, while the dollar per hour figure is still very important,
there are other cost components that factor into total labor costs as
well. Most notably, these include the employee benefit package and
other mandated indirect costs that are the responsibility of the
employer such as:
• Life and health insurance
• Retirement and savings plans
• Workers' compensation
• Unemployment insurance
• Social Security